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Early Time-limited Treatment Leads to Better Outcomes for Infants with HIV

Infants with HIV who start antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately after birth had a lower risk of disease progression or death and were able to safely interrupt treatment longer than children who started ART later, according to findings from the long-running CHER study published in the August 22, 2013, advance online edition of The Lancet.

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Increased Risk of AIDS-defining Illnesses Seen Even at CD4 Counts of 500-750

HIV positive people with CD4 T-cell counts in the 500-749 cells/mm3 range still have a higher risk of AIDS-defining illnesses -- especially cancers -- compared to those with more than 1000 cells/mm3, although the risk is quite low, according to a study published in the August 6, 2013, advance edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases. These findings offer further evidence of the benefits of prompt antiretroviral treatment.

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IAS 2013: Strategies to Detect and Treat Gay Men with Acute HIV Infection

The detection and control of acute (very recent) HIV infection may be a powerful HIV prevention measure for epidemics in men who have sex with men (MSM), Eugène Kroon of the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center reported at a late-breaker session at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention in Kuala Lumpur. Immediate HIV treatment was associated with rapid falls in viral load and sustained behavior change.

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ADAP Crisis Task Force and ViiV Agree on Discounted Price for Dolutegravir

The ADAP Crisis Task Force (ACTF) announced this week that it has negotiated an agreement with ViiV Healthcare to provide the newly approved integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (Tivicay) to AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) recipients for less than the wholesale cost.

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FDA Approves ViiV HIV Integrase Inhibitor Dolutegravir (Tivicay)

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today (August 12, 2013) approved the second HIV integrase inhibitor, dolutegravir, which will be marketed under the brand name Tivicay by ViiV Healthcare. Phase 3 studies showed that dolutegravir works as well as raltegravir (Isentress) or Atripla and is generally safe and well-tolerated.

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IAS 2013: HIV May Be Present in Semen Despite Undetectable Blood Viral Load

Gay men with HIV can shed the virus in their semen even when they are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with fully suppressed blood plasma viral load, according to a longitudinal French study presented at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur.

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IAS 2013: Women Who Start Option B+ ART During Pregnancy Often Lost to Follow-up

Women who begin HIV treatment during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, prior to the CD4 cell threshold previously recommended for starting treatment (350 cells/mm3), were significantly more likely to be lost to follow-up than women who started treatment at the general treatment threshold, Malawian researchers reported at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention in Kuala Lumpur.

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Preventive Antibiotics for Tuberculosis Lower Risk of Death for People with HIV

Increased screening for tuberculosis (TB) and prophylactic treatment with isoniazid significantly reduced the incidence of active TB disease as well as mortality among patients treated at HIV clinics in Brazil, according to a study published in the August 14, 2013, advance edition of Lancet Infectious Diseases. This is the first evidence that a community-wide effort can prevent people coinfected with HIV and TB from developing active TB disease.

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IAS 2013: End-Stage Kidney Disease Is More Common Among People with HIV

HIV positive people in the U.S. and Canada are nearly 4 times as likely to develop end-stage renal disease than HIV negative people in the general population, largely driven by a very high rate among blacks, researchers reported last month at the 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur.

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FDA Approves First Rapid HIV Test That Can Detect Acute Infection

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) this month approved a new rapid diagnostic test that detects antibodies against both HIV-1 and HIV-2, as well as the HIV-1 p24 antigen. Detection of the antigen but not antibodies indicates acute infection, allowing for the possibility of improved prevention and earlier treatment.

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IAS 2013: Life Expectancy of HIV+ People in North America Increased by 15 Years

A 20-year-old HIV positive person on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the U.S. or Canada has a remaining life expectancy of about 50 years, approaching that of HIV negative individuals, according to a poster presented at the 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) last month in Kuala Lumpur.

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Alcohol Does Not Worsen Disease Progression or Impair Treatment for People with HIV

People with HIV who consume alcohol did not see detrimental changes in their CD4 T-cell count or viral load when compared with non-drinkers, though those who drank heavily had more difficulty achieving good treatment adherence, researchers reported in the July 25, 2013, advance edition of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

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IAS 2013: Raltegravir/Etravirine Dual Regimen Maintains Viral Suppression

A regimen of raltegravir (Isentress) plus etravirine (Intelence) without NRTIs or protease inhibitors was able to keep HIV in check after switching from a standard regimen if patients did not have pre-existing NNRTI resistance, researchers reported at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur.

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Exercise Linked to Less Cognitive Impairment Among People with HIV

HIV positive people who recently engaged in physical exercise were about half as likely to show signs of neurocognitive impairment -- including impaired working memory and slower information processing -- as those who did not, according to a study published in the August 10, 2013, advance edition of the Journal of Neurovirology.

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IAS 2013: Single Tablet Regimens Do Not Always Produce Better HIV Treatment Outcomes

One pill per day does not necessarily lead to more durable HIV suppression than regimens containing more pills taken twice-daily, according to a study presented at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur.

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New PEP Guidelines Recommend 3-Drug ART After Occupational HIV Exposure

The U.S. Public Health Service this month released updated guidelines for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after occupational exposure in healthcare settings to blood or other body fluids that may contain HIV. The new recommendations call for immediately starting a 4-week regimen containing at least 3 antiretroviral drugs.

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IAS 2013: Combination Prevention Trial Shows Drop in HIV Incidence, Increase in Testing

Results from Project ACCEPT, a pioneering HIV prevention trial comparing the effects of mobile HIV testing, community mobilization, and enhanced support for people with HIV, versus standard voluntary counseling and testing, were announced at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Prevention in Kuala Lumpur.

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IAS 2013: Lower-dose Lopinavir/Ritonavir Reduces Side Effects, Maintains Viral Control in HIV+ Children

Low dose lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra or Aluvia) -- 70% of the standard dose -- worked as well as the standard dose in maintaining viral suppression, but with less dyslipidemia, among children with HIV in Thailand, Thanyawee Puthanakit reported on behalf of the HIVNAT 152 PEARL study at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur.

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FDA Limits Use of Oral Antifungal Ketoconazole Due to Side Effects and Drug Interactions

The antifungal drug ketoconazole (brand name Nizoral), used to treat certain AIDS-related opportunistic infections, should no longer be used as first-line oral therapy for any infection due to its potential to cause liver toxicity and adrenal gland problems, and instead should be reserved for those who cannot take or do not respond to other treatments, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The warning does not apply to topical formulations.

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IAS 2013: People with HIV Who Use Statins May Have Lower Cancer Risk

HIV positive people who use statins to manage high cholesterol also may reduce their risk of developing non-AIDS-defining malignancies, according to study findings reported at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur.

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IAS 2013: Acute Retroviral Syndrome Linked to HIV Disease Progression

People who reported higher scores on a scale of symptom severity during initial HIV infection had lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher viral load set-points, and greater likelihood of HIV disease progression than those with mild or no acute antiretroviral symptoms, researchers reported at the recent 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur.

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