Other Infections

Coffee Consumption Linked to Lower Risk of Death in Large Study

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Drinking up to 6 cups of coffee per day was associated with significantly reduced risk of death over 13 years, according to a large prospective analysis of people in the 50-70 year age range, published in the May 17, 2012, New England Journal of Medicine.

A growing body of evidence indicates that consumption of coffee -- or in some cases, caffeine more generally -- is associated with a variety of health benefits. One area in which coffee appears especially beneficial is liver disease, as it has been associated with reduced fibrosis in people with fatty liver diseaseand better response to interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C.

The latest study, by Neal Freedman from the National Cancer Institute and colleagues, looked at more than 400,000 people in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, who collectively contributed more than 5 million person-years of follow-up data. Participants were 50 to 71 years of age at study entry, and people with a history of heart disease, stroke, or cancer were excluded.

The researchers found that after adjusting for smoking and other risk factors, death rates started to decline with only 1 cup of coffee per day. The effect was greatest among those consuming 4-5 cups per day, with a 12% reduction in all-cause mortality for men and a 16% reduction for women. This was the case even though coffee drinkers were more likely to smoke, drink alcohol heavily, and eat red meat, and less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and get regular exercise.

Broken down by cause, coffee consumption was linked to lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease, accidents and injuries, and infections, but not cancer deaths; liver-related deaths were not reported.

Observed associations were similar regardless of whether participants drank caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee, and held for both smokers and non-smokers and overweight and normal-weight individuals.

While this correlation between coffee consumption and reduced mortality does not prove causation -- and a large controlled trial that randomly assigned some participants to forgo their joe might prove difficult -- the study does offer reassurance that coffee likely does not have substantial negative health effects.

Below is an edited excerpt from a National Cancer Institute press prelease describing the study and its findings.

NIH Study Finds that Coffee Drinkers Have Lower Risk of Death

Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, and AARP.

Coffee drinkers were less likely to die from heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, although the association was not seen for cancer. These results from a large study of older adults were observed after adjustment for the effects of other risk factors on mortality, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. Researchers caution, however, that they can't be sure whether these associations mean that drinking coffee actually makes people live longer. The results of the study were published in the May 17, 2012 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Neal Freedman, PhD, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, and his colleagues examined the association between coffee drinking and risk of death in 400,000 U.S. men and women ages 50 to 71 who participated in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Information about coffee intake was collected once by questionnaire at study entry in 1995-1996. The participants were followed until the date they died or Dec. 31, 2008, whichever came first.

The researchers found that the association between coffee and reduction in risk of death increased with the amount of coffee consumed. Relative to men and women who did not drink coffee, those who consumed three or more cups of coffee per day had approximately a 10 percent lower risk of death. Coffee drinking was not associated with cancer mortality among women, but there was a slight and only marginally statistically significant association of heavier coffee intake with increased risk of cancer death among men.

"Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in America, but the association between coffee consumption and risk of death has been unclear. We found coffee consumption to be associated with lower risk of death overall, and of death from a number of different causes," said Freedman. "Although we cannot infer a causal relationship between coffee drinking and lower risk of death, we believe these results do provide some reassurance that coffee drinking does not adversely affect health."

The investigators caution that coffee intake was assessed by self-report at a single time point and therefore might not reflect long-term patterns of intake. Also, information was not available on how the coffee was prepared (espresso, boiled, filtered, etc.); the researchers consider it possible that preparation methods may affect the levels of any protective components in coffee.

"The mechanism by which coffee protects against risk of death -- if indeed the finding reflects a causal relationship -- is not clear, because coffee contains more than 1,000 compounds that might potentially affect health," said Freedman. "The most studied compound is caffeine, although our findings were similar in those who reported the majority of their coffee intake to be caffeinated or decaffeinated."

5/18/12

Reference

ND Freedman, Y Park, CC Abnet, et al. Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 366(20):1891-1904. May 17, 2012.

Other Source

National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health. NIH Study Finds that Coffee Drinkers Have Lower Risk of Death. NIH News press release. May 16, 2012.