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CROI 2014: Vitamin D and Rosuvastatin Improve Bone Loss in People with HIV

A combination of high-dose vitamin D and calcium may help reduce bone loss after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART), according to a presentation at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) last month in Boston. A related study found that rosuvastatin increased hip bone mineral density in HIV positive people on ART, though insulin resistance worsened.

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CROI 2014: Tenofovir Alone May Work as Well as Truvada for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

Tenofovir used as a single agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be as effective as the Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine) coformulation for preventing HIV infection, which, if confirmed, could have implications for cost and access worldwide.

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CROI 2014: Women with Circumcised Partners Less Likely to Have HIV

A study from Orange Farm near Johannesburg in South Africa -- the area that hosted the first-ever randomized controlled trial of male circumcision for HIV prevention, which concluded in 2005 -- has found evidence that women who are partners of circumcised men are less likely to have HIV themselves, according to a presentation at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Neurocognitive Problems, Depression, and Early ART in People with HIV

In a particularly challenging area of HIV care where research is complicated by gaps in knowledge and invasive clinical procedures, there was significant attention to neurological manifestations -- or neuroAIDS -- at this year’s Conference on Antiretroviral Agents and Chemotherapy (CROI 2014) last month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Heart Attack Link to Abacavir Persists in D:A:D Study

The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir (Ziagen, also in Epzicom or Kivexa) continues to be associated with a near-doubling of the risk of heart attack, according to the latest update from the Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study, presented to the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) this month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Researchers Discuss HIV, Aging, and Frailty

People living with HIV are at greater risk of geriatric syndromes such as frailty and difficulty with daily activities than HIV negative people of the same age -- and this can have a significant effect upon their quality of life as they age, according to several studies presented at the 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) last month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Depo-Provera Contraceptive Linked to HIV Acquisition [VIDEO]

South African women who used the injectable hormonal contraceptive DMPA had a significantly higher risk of becoming infected with HIV than women using a different injectable method, according to a report presented at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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Men with HIV Have Higher Risk of Heart Disease

HIV positive men have more extensive atherosclerosis, or build-up of plaque in their arteries, than HIV negative men after taking into account other cardiovascular risk factors, potentially raising the risk of heart attack, according to an analysis from the large MACS cohort published in the April 1 Annals of Internal Medicine.

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CROI 2014: Very Different Levels of PrEP Uptake and Adherence in 3 U.S. Cities

One of the first studies of open-label pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for at-risk gay men in 3 U.S. cities shows that although the proportion of those initially offered or seeking PrEP who ended up taking it was similar in all cities, the amount of interest differed substantially. The demonstration project also found substantial differences in adherence between the cities, possibly due to a younger population in one, but lower adherence was not associated with lower motivation to take PrEP.

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Updated Perinatal ART Guidelines for Pregnant Women with HIV

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has updated its guidelines for use of antiretroviral drugs by pregnant women with HIV, intended both to improve the health of women and to prevent transmission of the virus to their infants during gestation or delivery.

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CROI 2014: Newborns Exposed to Tenofovir Have Lower Bone Content [VIDEO]

Infants born to women who took tenofovir during pregnancy had significantly lower bone mineral content than babies who were not exposed, according to study findings reported at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: STIs Increase Risk of HIV Infection During Pregnancy

Pregnant women in Kenya have a similar risk of HIV infection during pregnancy as women in serodiscordant couples or sex workers, but women with a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) had nearly a 4-fold increased risk of acute HIV infection, John Kinuthia from the University of Nairobireported at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) last month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Dapivirine Vaginal Ring Appears Safe and Effective in Tissue Study

Vaginal rings containing the experimental NNRTI dapivirine were well-tolerated and blocked HIV infection of cervical tissue samples, but rings containing maraviroc did not produce adequate drug concentrations, researchers reported at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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Curbing HIV Among Drug Users Reduces AIDS and Death Among Heterosexuals

Counseling, testing, and harm reduction programs that reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) as well as non-injecting drug users were associated with an overall reduction in rates of progression to AIDS and mortality among heterosexuals in U.S. cities, according to study described in the April edition of Annals of Epidemiology.

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CROI 2014: Efavirenz Matches Lopinavir/ritonavir for Perinatal HIV Treatment

Pregnant women taking efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) had significantly better virological outcomes at the time of delivery compared to those taking lopinavir/ ritonavir in a randomized study in rural Uganda, according to a report at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) in Boston this month.

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Studies Shed Light on Immune Responses in HIV Vaccine Trials

A specific type of antibody known as IgG3, targeting the V1V2 portion of the HIV envelope, appears to be responsible for the temporary protection against HIV infection seen in one of the only partially successful HIV vaccine trials to date, according to 2 reports in the March 19 edition of Science Translational Medicine.

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CROI 2014: Lopinavir or Lamivudine Equally Protective Against HIV During Breast-feeding

Peri-exposure prophylaxis using either lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) or lamivudine (3TC, Epivir) proved equally protective as infant prophylaxis against HIV infection during 12 months of breast-feeding, according to a report at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Self-Reports Did Not Reflect Actual Gel or Pill Use in VOICE PrEP Trial

Self-reported adherence to daily tenofovir or Truvada pills or tenofovir vaginal gel for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV infection did not match drug levels in the body, helping to explain the lack of protection seen in the VOICE trial, researchers reported at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: People with HIV More Likely to Die of Many Common Cancers

People with HIV are more likely to die from many common cancers than the rest of the U.S. population, according to a large comparative study presented at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Cumulative Viral Load and HIV Disease Progression

Periodic low-level viral load appears to predict virological failure, but not progression to AIDS or death, and cumulative viral load over time may be a risk factor for HIV disease progression and mortality, according to studies presented at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston.

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CROI 2014: Nipping HIV in the Bud -- Could We Use Genotyping to Interrupt Transmission?

The 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this month in Boston heard a number of presentations on phylogenetic analysis -- the use of genetic fingerprinting of HIV to trace patterns of transmission and prioritize groups for targeting prevention.

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